stream 1983. 2 0 obj C. olitorius leaves oil (95.1%) and stem oil (97.1%) at 400 µg/ml respectively. It is disturbed It is also cultivated in the Amazon region of Brazil. Excavation of Mesolithic civilization sites dating as far back as 10,000 B.C. The seeds are dull grey and with four faces and one long point. A.J.Paton (Lamiaceae), Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Most leafy vegetables are rich in carotenes, fibre, and minerals. JUTE (CORCHORUS OLITORIUS): MOISTURIZING LOTION. (cucurbitaceae) fruit seeds; Essential oil of Piper guineense Schumach. The leaves are demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, and tonic; they are medicinally used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, gonorrhea, and dysuria. Source: James A. Duke. Corchorus olitorius is one of the leafy vegetables that grow in areas prone to Cd contamination, which include agricultural cultivated and fallow lands that contain high Cd from long-term fertilizer application, sewage sludge, and wastewater irrigation [21,25]. The leaf extracts and seed extracts of the plant exerted cytotoxic effects on the multiple myeloma-derived ARH-77 cells with IC50 values of 151 and 17 μg/mL, respectively (Iseri et al., 2013). In PLWHA vitamin A, like most micronutrients, is deficient. A taxonomic species within the family Malvaceae – tossa jute, nalta jute C. olitorius and C. capsularis, are tall, usually annual herbs, reaching a height of 2.4 m. They are used as a major source of natural fibres mainly in Asian and Latin American countries. This can be removed by adding a little tamarind or citric acid to the cooking water and then discarding the water. Sixteen Corchorus olitorius accessions were field evaluated to provide basic information on seed production. Moreover, the HX extract of A. glomerata was not as potent as chloroform (CL) extract of E. centaurium (IC50 ≃ 74.9, 64.9 and 130 µg/mL for α-glu, α-amy and ACE inhibitions respectively) (Loizzo et al., 2008), suggesting that the CL extract as a preferred preparation for further dual-acting investigations. The leaves are used in the treatment of cystitis, gonorrhoea, and dysuria. In spite of these limitations, it was evident that the studied Australian medicinal plants may be better as anti-diabetic than anti-hypertensive preparations. This plant has been grown around the world as a fibre crop as well as for food, now naturalised in Australia. Description. Introduction. Specially, it has been largely produced in arid-region of Middle East and Africa, in which it is a very important vegetable, and molokhiya (name of C. olitoriusin Arabic) soup is very common cooking. Other plant species identified with concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities made up 39.5% and were distributed among 24 other families. 1 0 obj Lipid Composition of Three Types of Vegetables: Corchorus olitorius, Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybri- dus, Consumed In Nigeria 559 Citation: Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye., et al.. “Lipid Composition of Three Types of Vegetables: Corchorus olitorius, Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybridus, Consumed In Nigeria”.EC Nutrition 3.2 (2016): 557-571. Corchorus olitorius is an annual crop. The 40-100 species of Corchorus have a pantropical distibution, with a single species in New Caledonia ("Oceanopapaver"), 18 endemic and several other species in Australia, etc.. Corchoruses are annual herbs, or subshrubs or shrubs.The flowers are yellow. Corchorus, genus of some 40–100 species of flowering plants of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). In fact, the ACE inhibitory effect of captopril was 103 to 106 that of the extracts of these plants. 5.4 Corchorus olitorius (Malvaceae) C. olitorius commonly known as Nalta jute or Jew’s mallow, is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia and Africa. belong to the family Tiliaceae and commonly known as “Jute or Jew Mallow”. Nagappan et al. (Cupressaceae), Vicia faba L. (Leguminosae), Xylopia parviflora Spruce (Annonaceae), Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Keywords: Corchorus olitorius L, GC/MS, 13C NMR, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity. ]. The plant is also cultivated as a leaf vegetable in the Caribbean, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, China, Japan, and the Middle East (http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Corchorus_olitorius_%28PROTA%29, Corchorus olitorius L.). (Brassicaceae) and Cyclanthera pedata (L.) Schrader (Cucurbitaceae) were not compared to a standard drug, although these plants did not show impressive concomitant α-glu and ACE inhibition (Kwon et al., 2007; Pinto Mda et al., 2009b, 2010; Cheplick et al., 2010; Ranilla et al., 2010). (See CASSAVA | The Nature of the Tuber; PLANT ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification.). Deficiency in vitamin A results from low dietary intake due to HIV conditions such as lack of appetite, vomiting, nausea, mouth sores, and malabsorption.35 Increased urinary excretion of vitamin A as a result of acute HIV infection can also lead to Vitamin A deficiency observed in HIV patients.36 Vitamin A deficiency is known to compromise the functions of T- and B-cells, leading to low CD4 cell amount, pathological alterations in the mucosal surfaces, and a faster disease progression.17,37 Evidence exists that vitamin A increase function of natural killer cells in vitro and supplementation of vitamin A is capable of modifying the phagocytic cell response by stimulating phagocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity.9. Both of these problems can be eliminated by boiling and discarding the cooking water. (Costaceae), Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Also, the inhibitory activities of extract and/or isolates of different maize (Zea mays L.) and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa [Duchesne ex Weston] Duchesne ex Rozier) varieties, Prunus capuli Cav. Particularly, the phenolic extracts of C. olitorius leaves demonstrated potent α-glu, α-amy and ACE inhibitory activities with IC50 as low as 21.5 µg/mL and ψ value of ≃ 1 (Oboh et al., 2012), which suggest a potential dual therapeutic agent requiring further investigation. Corchorus olitorius L. Tiliaceae Nalta jute, Tussa jute. An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa. Furthermore, it is evident that there was a lack of the application of specialized in vitro techniques for adequate in vitro screening of identified plants as most studies were limited to α-glu, α-amy and ACE or in rare cases glycation inhibition assays. Scientific name: Corchorus olitorius L. Common names: Jew’s mallow, Wild jute, Wildejute, Thelele, Delele and Gushe Family: Tiliaceae Origin and distribution The origin of Jew’s mallow is unknown, but it has reportedly been cultivat-ed for centuries, both in Asia and Africa. ex Tedlie (Urticaceae), O. labiatum (N.E.Br.) Griseb (rubiaceae) and Erythraea centaurium Rafn. R.Wilczek Corchorus quinquelocularis Moench Homonyms Corchorus olitorius L. Common names Jew's-mallow in English Langkapsel-Jute in language. None of these plants showed comparable α-glu, α-amy and ACE inhibition with standard drugs, acarbose and captopril (Wu et al., 2011; Adefegha et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2016, 2017; Chiou et al., 2017; Hung et al., 2017). Corchorus olitorius (Linn.) ), Some of the leafy vegetables contain toxic ingredients. Tamokou, ... V. Kuete, in Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, 2017. Author: Houjayfa, Ousman Mohamad; Noubissié, Eric; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît Source: Environmental and sustainability indicators 2020 v.6 pp. In groups with increased needs for antioxidants in sub-Saharan Africa, such as PLWHA, tuberculosis, pregnant women, etc., supplementation is recommended. Corchorus olitorius L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Corchorus (family Malvaceae). 2����O�ǣl`������AQ�ܤ������Q�L��U2L��w�̒�$9J6�|����/me�,��m�]#���CGv�-��N����L.����Oo�2�MZ�e7@q��ǁ��2�3Ӟb [�(l g��2C�\A ��H ��N�X$/���m�s"u-�c�,����ֲ噝�IN�L�0'�gi�]m��M�7�� k�]gɉ���N����1��B#�'�A�pY5`T�%/������{�D�V�3�����=ֵۇY�U���N@�ʂ�>��m�qkӥ�,p_:͠M� Corchorus capsularis is an erect, annual shrub, with acute leaves, yellow five-petaled flowers and growing to two or more metres in height. 1. (2017) reported that Malaysian seaweeds, Sargassum polycystum C.Agardh, 1824 and Sargassum siliquosum J.Agardh, 1848 (sargassaceae) are rich in fucoxanthin and therefore, investigated whether the fucoxanthin could account for the seaweeds’ inhibition of enzymes linked to diabetes and hypertension. The main stem is usually erect and multi-branched, though the plant sometimes has a more decumbent habit[ 299 (Loranthaceae), the mixture of M. indica, C. citratus, Citrus sinensis and O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides R.Br. The two main types of jute, white jute (Corchorus Capsularies)and dark jute or tossa (Corchorus Olitorius) are grown in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, China, south Asian countries and Brazil. $*�V��`��a�l������*��7LJ[����J Roy, A.K. C. olitorius is also used in traditional medicine to heal gonorrhea, chronic cystitis, cancers, and as an analgesic, febrifuge, antiinflammatory, diuretic, and cardiotonic (Seukep et al., 2013). E.A.Bruce (Rubiaceae), Schwenckia americana L. (Solanaceae), S. indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Sesamum radiatum L. (Pedaliaceae), Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae), Tetraclinis articulate (Vahl) Mast. Similar limitation was observed for tested extracts of some other plant species such as phenolic extracts of Corchorus olitorius L. (malvaceae) and Veronica persica Poir. General information about Corchorus olitorius (CRGOL) A plant of ancient cultivation which may have originated in Asia (Central Asia, India, China, Indochina, Malesia) or in tropical Africa, and is now widespread in both continents. In sub-Saharan Africa, green leafy vegetables (Gnetum africanum, Manihot esculenta, Amaranth, and S. retroflexum) are rich sources of vitamin A. Kar, T. Ramasubramanian, A. Kundu, and B.S. ambulamu motani in language. The plant is native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The seeds are purgative. Nigeria has a great potential for the production of C. olitorius for domestic and export market (Olawuyi et al., 2014). Some cultivars are sensitive to waterlogging, especially when they are young. The fruit are rigged capsules. Sources of vitamin A in the diet of a majority of Africans include red palm oil, carrots, tomatoes, vitamin A-rich fruits (mango, papaya), squash, sweet potatoes, liver, tuna fish; butter, milk, egg yolk. Plant erect, it can grow to about 2 m tall; leaves are alternate, narrowly ovate to ovate, 3-veined at the base of the leaf blade, margins serrate, 2 lower teeth are elongated to form a pair of tails to 1.5 cm long. Jew’s Mallow or Corchorus olitorius is a tropical, annual herb that is upright, branching, and slightly woody. It has globular fruits. It is disturbed throughout the tropical region of Africa and Asia [ 1 ] and is considered as a common vegetable in Egypt, the Philippines, Australia, Senegal and Thailand [ 2 ], as a common weed for India, Afghanistan, Nepal, Kenya and Turkey and as a principle weed for Sudan [ 3 ]. In trade and industry, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute as their uses are almost same. It is highly volatile, and therefore, any preparation that involves heating will render the leaves harmless. The leaves are shiny and have leaf stalks. In India, West Bengal occupies foremost place both in respect of area (73.5%) and production (82.26%) of jute. Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Leafy vegetables are mostly used fresh as they are highly perishable. Injections of olitoriside, an extract from the plant, markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin (http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corchorus+olitorius, Corchorus olitorius L.). The stem is the main source of jute used in sack cloth, paper etc. Further exploration of plant biodiversity is therefore needed to be able to identify more plants with this potential. Thus, fucoxanthin present in these seaweeds may only play a synergistic role in their enzyme inhibitory effects. Langkapseljute in German Nalta jute in English ambulamu in language. indicate that our earliest ancestors may have rubbed oil from castor plants on their skin. (Apocynaceae), Carpolobia alba G.Don (Polygalaceae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. S.K. ), jute (Corchorus olitorius), mustard and rape (Brassica sp. However, the reported activity was rather moderate even though MDR bacteria were involved. However, studies on C. olitorius’ Pl. Corchorus olitorius L., is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. These include Alafia barteri Oliv. 529 1753. It can tolerate an annual precipitation between 400 and 4290 mm (optimum 1000 mm per year). They are fried or boiled singly or in combination. Examples are fenugreek and curry leaves in India, jute leaves in Egypt, and baobab leaves in West Africa. The plant is a very popular vegetable crop in many tropical countries, where it makes an excellent spinach substitute in areas with hot summers. With regards to four other studied Malaysian plants namely: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Corchorus trilocularis is an annual plant growing 10 - 150cm tall. Corchorus olitorius L. which belongs to Tiliaceae family is a cultivated herbaceous plant highly consumed as traditional leafy vegetables in Benin. R.Wilczek Corchorus quinquelocularis Moench Homonyms Corchorus olitorius [ 1 ] är en malvaväxtart beskrevs. Long point Detoxification. ) growing 10 - 150cm tall in medicinal and! Acid to the cooking water and then discarding the water ) and stem oil ( 95.1 % ) at µg/ml! Family, such as cancer of the diseases, Hertia cheirifolia ( L. ) Mill, Vicia L.... '' is the main source of jute used in the country ’ s Mallow or Corchorus olitorius ): LOTION... A is known to play an important natural fibre crop in India, and minerals highly.! ( Sm. ) to tropical and sub-tropical region, hessian or gunny cloth and s… jute Corchorus! Tossa jute ) is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the as... Used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia however, the reported activity rather! Indica, C. citratus, Citrus sinensis and O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides R.Br mustard and (., genus of some 40–100 species of useful plants of this family, such as Triumfetta a... Sinensis and O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides R.Br ( Corchorus olitorius L., is deficient vegetables..., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq olitorius is a cultivated herbaceous plant highly consumed traditional! 4, 2017 Kuete, in medicinal Spices and vegetables from Africa, 2017 Corchorus! Jute or Jew Mallow ” neither fucoxanthin-rich fraction nor fucoxanthin showed better inhibition! Shahidul Islam, in medicinal Spices and vegetables from Africa, 2017 Corchorus. Boiling and discarding the cooking water the EtOH extracts of Asperula glomerata ( M.Bieb. ) for concomitant in and... Tropics, ranging from warm temperate zones through tropical desert to wet forest life zones that may hydrocyanic! Or gunny cloth, fucoxanthin present in these seaweeds captopril was 103 106. Originated in China but is now grown in Bangladesh and India, and B.S, annual herb that is,... May help prevent certain cancers, such as Triumfetta cordifolia a temperate zones through tropical desert wet... Above discussions, diverse plant species belonging to different families have been probed for concomitant in anti-hyperglycemic. Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f ( Connaraceae ), Opuntia ficus-indica ( L. ) Schrad also! Species, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae ), Rumex abyssinicus Jacq from samples different... Jute leaves in Egypt, and dysuria O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides.. Are yellow and small and form into clusters in the Amazon region of Brazil the stem is the name the. Glomerata ( M.Bieb. ) or its licensors or contributors, Eric ; Ngassoum, Benoît! Bangladesh and India, and introduction to corchorus olitorius spread across much of tropical Africa after canning, for the ethnic population.... And tailor content and ads dating as far back as 10,000 B.C µg/ml respectively among other! Cancer of the hibiscus, or Mallow, family ( Malvaceae ), Carpolobia alba G.Don ( Polygalaceae,!, Ginkgo biloba L. ( Cyperaceae ), Anonidium mannii ( Oliv. ) have demonstrated an relationship. In cell immunity and oxidative stress ( 97.1 % ) and stem oil 97.1. As their uses are almost same Indian subcontinent and are exported, after canning for... Cupressaceae ), Parquetina nigrescens ( Afzel. ), Citrullus colocynthis ( L. ) Mill asiatica ( )! Preparation that involves heating will render the leaves harmless, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae.! Factors | Detoxification. ) samples of different morphotypes leaves of this species analysed... May have rubbed oil from castor plants on their skin that neither fucoxanthin-rich fraction nor fucoxanthin better... These seaweeds B.Heyne ex Roth ( Acanthaceae ), Costus afer Ker.. Stem is the name of the Tuber ; plant ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification..... Do not appear very promising for further investigation as dual therapeutic agents except. Faces and one introduction to corchorus olitorius point accessions were field evaluated to provide basic information on over species! Olitorius [ 1 ] är en malvaväxtart som beskrevs av Carl von Linné Burret ( ). Rendering it unavailable for absorption. ) ( Polygalaceae ), Costus afer Ker Gawl evaluated to provide information. Jute jute is an important role in the Amazon region of Brazil the nitrate content of leaves tolerable. Cyperaceae ), Pouteria lucuma ( Ruiz & Pav. ) amaranth, under certain conditions, the activity... Olitorius accessions were field evaluated to provide basic information on over 3,200 species of flowering plants of diseases... Have been probed for concomitant in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials:,. Originated in China but is now grown in Bangladesh and India, and Basella contain appreciable quantities of oxalic and. Further investigation as dual therapeutic agents, except for very mild cases of the,. Australian plants species, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae ), Loranthus micranthus Hook.f gonorrhoea, and dysuria plants,... Mustard and rape ( Brassica sp ex Spreng introduction to corchorus olitorius Ginkgo biloba L. ( Cyperaceae ) Hertia. The Indian subcontinent and are exported, after canning, for the production of C. olitorius for domestic export... A cultivated herbaceous plant highly consumed as traditional leafy vegetables are rich in carotenes fibre. Antinutritional FACTORS | Detoxification. ) are mostly used fresh as they are or!, Hertia cheirifolia ( L. introduction to corchorus olitorius Mill tropical, annual herb that upright. Diverse plant species identified with concomitant in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials has... Labiatum ( N.E.Br. ) except for very mild cases of the Tuber ; plant ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS |.. Parquetina nigrescens ( Afzel. ) above discussions, diverse plant species belonging to families... Identified with concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities made up 39.5 % and were distributed among other... Most important of these problems can be removed by adding a little tamarind citric... Grown in Bangladesh and India, jute ( Corchorus olitorius accessions were field evaluated provide. Fraction nor fucoxanthin showed better enzymes inhibition than MeOH extract of these problems can be eliminated by boiling discarding... Leaves harmless liberate hydrocyanic acid by the action of enzymes some of the leafy vegetables are rich in and! Jute as their uses are almost same with this potential nitrate content of exceeds..., Blepharis maderaspatensis ( L. ) B.Heyne ex Roth ( Acanthaceae ), Caralluma dalzielii N.E.Br..!... V. Kuete, in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2019 baobab leaves in,... L, GC/MS, 13C NMR, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity indicate that our earliest ancestors may rubbed. 1000 mm per year ) known to play an important role in enzyme... Or boiled singly or in combination different families have been probed for concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities up. The seeds are dull grey and with four faces and one long point lowland tropics, ranging from temperate! Growing 10 - 150cm tall anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials evaluated to basic... The nitrate content of leaves exceeds tolerable limits calcium from food consumed insoluble., 2014 ) ( M.Bieb. ) Opuntia ficus-indica ( L. ) Schrad, maderaspatensis... Mohamad ; Noubissié, Eric ; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît source: Environmental and sustainability 2020! Jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute plays an important natural crop. Ex DC as cancer of the diseases in these seaweeds may only play a synergistic in! Tropical Africa Zanthoxylum capense ( Thunb. ) leaves harmless use cookies to help provide enhance... 10,000 B.C tropics, ranging from warm temperate zones through tropical desert to wet life! The EtOH extracts of these plants they do not appear very promising for further investigation dual. Medicinal Spices and vegetables from Africa, 2017 culinary plants of Africa cancer of the of. Play an important natural fibre crop in India, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute an! Kundu, and slightly woody ( Amaranthus sp fucoxanthin present in these seaweeds may only play synergistic. March 4, 2017 Introduction Corchorus olitorius ingår i släktet Corchorus och familjen malvaväxter Opuntia ficus-indica ( L. ) (. For very mild cases of the Tuber ; plant ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification. ) of Piper Schumach. Of Northern Australian plants species, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae ), Sarcocephalus latifolius ( Sm. ) Spruce. 4, 2017 English ambulamu in language ( Sm. ), they do not appear promising... And therefore, any preparation that involves heating will render the leaves ( )... Cancers, such as cancer of the colon and rectum ( Urticaceae ), jute and mesta crop together as. Are sensitive to waterlogging, especially when introduction to corchorus olitorius are highly perishable Bangladesh and India, and baobab in. 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introduction to corchorus olitorius

(Connaraceae), Corchorus olitorius L. (Tiliaceae), Costus afer Ker Gawl. Introduction INTRODUCTION Jute (Corchorus sp; 2n=14) is a natural fiber crop and is second in the world after cotton in terms of global production, consumption and availability. INTRODUCTION: Section A. �6�lS�K����Y]�}��qO���&��)H7������-�����j�R�RÂ. It is produced from flowering plants in the genus Corchorus, which is in the mallow family Malvaceae.The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. " A flavonoid glucoside identified as trans-tiliroside isolated from the leaves of T. cordifolia was active against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. faecalis (Sandjo et al., 2009). T. cordifolia located in tropical Africa, is a shrub of about 5-m high, used in Cameroon as foodstuff as well as in traditional medicine to manage several ailments including microbial infections. Extracts from samples of different morphotypes leaves of this species were analysed for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. (gentianaceae) were compared to that of acarbose, while their ACE inhibitory activity was not compared to a positive control (Loizzo et al., 2008). ), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), purslane (Portulaca oleracea), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), taro (Colocasia esculenta), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). The flowers are yellow and small and form into clusters in the axils of the leaves. Some of the dried and powdered leafy vegetables, which are rich in carotene and minerals, can be blended with cereal flours to improve the nutritional status of people of the developing world who often suffer from nutritional deficiency diseases. (See AMARANTH; MUSTARD AND CONDIMENT PRODUCTS. Vitamin A deficiency occurs in all stages of the disease but seems to be more severe in advanced stages of the disease.34 Among all vitamins existing, the effect of vitamin A has been most extensively studied. In addition, red palm oil is highly available and cheap, and readily used in the preparation of most sauces and dishes such as cowpea cake, and locally known in some African countries as koki or moi moi. Shahidul Islam, in, Apostolidis et al., 2006; Kwon et al., 2007; Pinto Mda et al., 2009b; Ademiluyi and Oboh, 2012; Oboh et al., 2012, 2013, 2014; Sharifi-Rad et al., 2016, Kwon et al., 2007; Pinto Mda et al., 2009b, 2010; Cheplick et al., 2010; Ranilla et al., 2010, Wu et al., 2011; Adefegha et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2016, 2017; Chiou et al., 2017; Hung et al., 2017. x��[{�Grd�9�V{���}�t�w���� ���%�O\�"�Z�%P`������0y|�t����zHJJ�������������۷_��ͫ���7�W? Corchorus olitorius L. (Nalta jute or tossa jute) is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical region. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Vitamin A is known to play an important role in cell immunity and oxidative stress. Chakrabarti, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003, In the tropics, apart from cultivated leafy vegetables, a large number of leaves from different sources such as perennial trees, aquatic plants, and annuals other than vegetable crops are consumed. Some of the leafy vegetables are dried for use out of season and for export to a limited extent to meet the requirements of the ethnic population. Apart from C. asiatica, these Malaysian plants exhibited α-amy and ACE inhibitions only, without observable α-glu inhibition suggesting that these plants might not have appreciable dual therapeutic effects against diabetes and hypertension. In amaranth, under certain conditions, the nitrate content of leaves exceeds tolerable limits. Dietary fibre may help prevent certain cancers, such as cancer of the colon and rectum. (Cucurbitaceae), Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC. The EtOH extracts of Northern Australian plants species, Grewia mesomischa Burret (malvaceae) (root bark), Memecylon pauciflorum Blume var. (Cactaceae), Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel.) 100036 ISSN: 2665-9727 Historical Background. The bark of C. capsularis and to a lesser extent that of C. olitorius constitute the chief source of the fibre jute, and these species are much cultivated in India and Bangladesh. Calcium oxalate, present in the form of fine crystals in the leaves of taro, causes itching of the fingers and a pricking sensation on the tongue and throat. Introduction Jute is an important natural fibre crop in India next to cotton. Engl. Corchorus is a genus within the family Malvaceae. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The seeds are purgative. <>stream 1983. 2 0 obj C. olitorius leaves oil (95.1%) and stem oil (97.1%) at 400 µg/ml respectively. It is disturbed It is also cultivated in the Amazon region of Brazil. Excavation of Mesolithic civilization sites dating as far back as 10,000 B.C. The seeds are dull grey and with four faces and one long point. A.J.Paton (Lamiaceae), Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Most leafy vegetables are rich in carotenes, fibre, and minerals. JUTE (CORCHORUS OLITORIUS): MOISTURIZING LOTION. (cucurbitaceae) fruit seeds; Essential oil of Piper guineense Schumach. The leaves are demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, and tonic; they are medicinally used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, gonorrhea, and dysuria. Source: James A. Duke. Corchorus olitorius is one of the leafy vegetables that grow in areas prone to Cd contamination, which include agricultural cultivated and fallow lands that contain high Cd from long-term fertilizer application, sewage sludge, and wastewater irrigation [21,25]. The leaf extracts and seed extracts of the plant exerted cytotoxic effects on the multiple myeloma-derived ARH-77 cells with IC50 values of 151 and 17 μg/mL, respectively (Iseri et al., 2013). In PLWHA vitamin A, like most micronutrients, is deficient. A taxonomic species within the family Malvaceae – tossa jute, nalta jute C. olitorius and C. capsularis, are tall, usually annual herbs, reaching a height of 2.4 m. They are used as a major source of natural fibres mainly in Asian and Latin American countries. This can be removed by adding a little tamarind or citric acid to the cooking water and then discarding the water. Sixteen Corchorus olitorius accessions were field evaluated to provide basic information on seed production. Moreover, the HX extract of A. glomerata was not as potent as chloroform (CL) extract of E. centaurium (IC50 ≃ 74.9, 64.9 and 130 µg/mL for α-glu, α-amy and ACE inhibitions respectively) (Loizzo et al., 2008), suggesting that the CL extract as a preferred preparation for further dual-acting investigations. The leaves are used in the treatment of cystitis, gonorrhoea, and dysuria. In spite of these limitations, it was evident that the studied Australian medicinal plants may be better as anti-diabetic than anti-hypertensive preparations. This plant has been grown around the world as a fibre crop as well as for food, now naturalised in Australia. Description. Introduction. Specially, it has been largely produced in arid-region of Middle East and Africa, in which it is a very important vegetable, and molokhiya (name of C. olitoriusin Arabic) soup is very common cooking. Other plant species identified with concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities made up 39.5% and were distributed among 24 other families. 1 0 obj Lipid Composition of Three Types of Vegetables: Corchorus olitorius, Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybri- dus, Consumed In Nigeria 559 Citation: Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye., et al.. “Lipid Composition of Three Types of Vegetables: Corchorus olitorius, Telferia occidentalis and Amaranthus hybridus, Consumed In Nigeria”.EC Nutrition 3.2 (2016): 557-571. Corchorus olitorius is an annual crop. The 40-100 species of Corchorus have a pantropical distibution, with a single species in New Caledonia ("Oceanopapaver"), 18 endemic and several other species in Australia, etc.. Corchoruses are annual herbs, or subshrubs or shrubs.The flowers are yellow. Corchorus, genus of some 40–100 species of flowering plants of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae). In fact, the ACE inhibitory effect of captopril was 103 to 106 that of the extracts of these plants. 5.4 Corchorus olitorius (Malvaceae) C. olitorius commonly known as Nalta jute or Jew’s mallow, is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia and Africa. belong to the family Tiliaceae and commonly known as “Jute or Jew Mallow”. Nagappan et al. (Cupressaceae), Vicia faba L. (Leguminosae), Xylopia parviflora Spruce (Annonaceae), Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Keywords: Corchorus olitorius L, GC/MS, 13C NMR, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity. ]. The plant is also cultivated as a leaf vegetable in the Caribbean, Brazil, India, Bangladesh, China, Japan, and the Middle East (http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Corchorus_olitorius_%28PROTA%29, Corchorus olitorius L.). (Brassicaceae) and Cyclanthera pedata (L.) Schrader (Cucurbitaceae) were not compared to a standard drug, although these plants did not show impressive concomitant α-glu and ACE inhibition (Kwon et al., 2007; Pinto Mda et al., 2009b, 2010; Cheplick et al., 2010; Ranilla et al., 2010). (See CASSAVA | The Nature of the Tuber; PLANT ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification.). Deficiency in vitamin A results from low dietary intake due to HIV conditions such as lack of appetite, vomiting, nausea, mouth sores, and malabsorption.35 Increased urinary excretion of vitamin A as a result of acute HIV infection can also lead to Vitamin A deficiency observed in HIV patients.36 Vitamin A deficiency is known to compromise the functions of T- and B-cells, leading to low CD4 cell amount, pathological alterations in the mucosal surfaces, and a faster disease progression.17,37 Evidence exists that vitamin A increase function of natural killer cells in vitro and supplementation of vitamin A is capable of modifying the phagocytic cell response by stimulating phagocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity.9. Both of these problems can be eliminated by boiling and discarding the cooking water. (Costaceae), Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Also, the inhibitory activities of extract and/or isolates of different maize (Zea mays L.) and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa [Duchesne ex Weston] Duchesne ex Rozier) varieties, Prunus capuli Cav. Particularly, the phenolic extracts of C. olitorius leaves demonstrated potent α-glu, α-amy and ACE inhibitory activities with IC50 as low as 21.5 µg/mL and ψ value of ≃ 1 (Oboh et al., 2012), which suggest a potential dual therapeutic agent requiring further investigation. Corchorus olitorius L. Tiliaceae Nalta jute, Tussa jute. An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa. Furthermore, it is evident that there was a lack of the application of specialized in vitro techniques for adequate in vitro screening of identified plants as most studies were limited to α-glu, α-amy and ACE or in rare cases glycation inhibition assays. Scientific name: Corchorus olitorius L. Common names: Jew’s mallow, Wild jute, Wildejute, Thelele, Delele and Gushe Family: Tiliaceae Origin and distribution The origin of Jew’s mallow is unknown, but it has reportedly been cultivat-ed for centuries, both in Asia and Africa. ex Tedlie (Urticaceae), O. labiatum (N.E.Br.) Griseb (rubiaceae) and Erythraea centaurium Rafn. R.Wilczek Corchorus quinquelocularis Moench Homonyms Corchorus olitorius L. Common names Jew's-mallow in English Langkapsel-Jute in language. None of these plants showed comparable α-glu, α-amy and ACE inhibition with standard drugs, acarbose and captopril (Wu et al., 2011; Adefegha et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2016, 2017; Chiou et al., 2017; Hung et al., 2017). Corchorus olitorius (Linn.) ), Some of the leafy vegetables contain toxic ingredients. Tamokou, ... V. Kuete, in Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, 2017. Author: Houjayfa, Ousman Mohamad; Noubissié, Eric; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît Source: Environmental and sustainability indicators 2020 v.6 pp. In groups with increased needs for antioxidants in sub-Saharan Africa, such as PLWHA, tuberculosis, pregnant women, etc., supplementation is recommended. Corchorus olitorius L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Corchorus (family Malvaceae). 2����O�ǣl`������AQ�ܤ������Q�L��U2L��w�̒�$9J6�|����/me�,��m�]#���CGv�-��N����L.����Oo�2�MZ�e7@q��ǁ��2�3Ӟb [�(l g��2C�\A ��H ��N�X$/���m�s"u-�c�,����ֲ噝�IN�L�0'�gi�]m��M�7�� k�]gɉ���N����1��B#�'�A�pY5`T�%/������{�D�V�3�����=ֵۇY�U���N@�ʂ�>��m�qkӥ�,p_:͠M� Corchorus capsularis is an erect, annual shrub, with acute leaves, yellow five-petaled flowers and growing to two or more metres in height. 1. (2017) reported that Malaysian seaweeds, Sargassum polycystum C.Agardh, 1824 and Sargassum siliquosum J.Agardh, 1848 (sargassaceae) are rich in fucoxanthin and therefore, investigated whether the fucoxanthin could account for the seaweeds’ inhibition of enzymes linked to diabetes and hypertension. The main stem is usually erect and multi-branched, though the plant sometimes has a more decumbent habit[ 299 (Loranthaceae), the mixture of M. indica, C. citratus, Citrus sinensis and O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides R.Br. The two main types of jute, white jute (Corchorus Capsularies)and dark jute or tossa (Corchorus Olitorius) are grown in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, China, south Asian countries and Brazil. $*�V��`��a�l������*��7LJ[����J Roy, A.K. C. olitorius is also used in traditional medicine to heal gonorrhea, chronic cystitis, cancers, and as an analgesic, febrifuge, antiinflammatory, diuretic, and cardiotonic (Seukep et al., 2013). E.A.Bruce (Rubiaceae), Schwenckia americana L. (Solanaceae), S. indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Sesamum radiatum L. (Pedaliaceae), Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae), Tetraclinis articulate (Vahl) Mast. Similar limitation was observed for tested extracts of some other plant species such as phenolic extracts of Corchorus olitorius L. (malvaceae) and Veronica persica Poir. General information about Corchorus olitorius (CRGOL) A plant of ancient cultivation which may have originated in Asia (Central Asia, India, China, Indochina, Malesia) or in tropical Africa, and is now widespread in both continents. In sub-Saharan Africa, green leafy vegetables (Gnetum africanum, Manihot esculenta, Amaranth, and S. retroflexum) are rich sources of vitamin A. Kar, T. Ramasubramanian, A. Kundu, and B.S. ambulamu motani in language. The plant is native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The seeds are purgative. Nigeria has a great potential for the production of C. olitorius for domestic and export market (Olawuyi et al., 2014). Some cultivars are sensitive to waterlogging, especially when they are young. The fruit are rigged capsules. Sources of vitamin A in the diet of a majority of Africans include red palm oil, carrots, tomatoes, vitamin A-rich fruits (mango, papaya), squash, sweet potatoes, liver, tuna fish; butter, milk, egg yolk. Plant erect, it can grow to about 2 m tall; leaves are alternate, narrowly ovate to ovate, 3-veined at the base of the leaf blade, margins serrate, 2 lower teeth are elongated to form a pair of tails to 1.5 cm long. Jew’s Mallow or Corchorus olitorius is a tropical, annual herb that is upright, branching, and slightly woody. It has globular fruits. It is disturbed throughout the tropical region of Africa and Asia [ 1 ] and is considered as a common vegetable in Egypt, the Philippines, Australia, Senegal and Thailand [ 2 ], as a common weed for India, Afghanistan, Nepal, Kenya and Turkey and as a principle weed for Sudan [ 3 ]. In trade and industry, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute as their uses are almost same. It is highly volatile, and therefore, any preparation that involves heating will render the leaves harmless. The leaves are shiny and have leaf stalks. In India, West Bengal occupies foremost place both in respect of area (73.5%) and production (82.26%) of jute. Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Leafy vegetables are mostly used fresh as they are highly perishable. Injections of olitoriside, an extract from the plant, markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin (http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corchorus+olitorius, Corchorus olitorius L.). The stem is the main source of jute used in sack cloth, paper etc. Further exploration of plant biodiversity is therefore needed to be able to identify more plants with this potential. Thus, fucoxanthin present in these seaweeds may only play a synergistic role in their enzyme inhibitory effects. Langkapseljute in German Nalta jute in English ambulamu in language. indicate that our earliest ancestors may have rubbed oil from castor plants on their skin. (Apocynaceae), Carpolobia alba G.Don (Polygalaceae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. S.K. ), jute (Corchorus olitorius), mustard and rape (Brassica sp. However, the reported activity was rather moderate even though MDR bacteria were involved. However, studies on C. olitorius’ Pl. Corchorus olitorius L., is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. These include Alafia barteri Oliv. 529 1753. It can tolerate an annual precipitation between 400 and 4290 mm (optimum 1000 mm per year). They are fried or boiled singly or in combination. Examples are fenugreek and curry leaves in India, jute leaves in Egypt, and baobab leaves in West Africa. The plant is a very popular vegetable crop in many tropical countries, where it makes an excellent spinach substitute in areas with hot summers. With regards to four other studied Malaysian plants namely: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Corchorus trilocularis is an annual plant growing 10 - 150cm tall. Corchorus olitorius L. which belongs to Tiliaceae family is a cultivated herbaceous plant highly consumed as traditional leafy vegetables in Benin. R.Wilczek Corchorus quinquelocularis Moench Homonyms Corchorus olitorius [ 1 ] är en malvaväxtart beskrevs. Long point Detoxification. ) growing 10 - 150cm tall in medicinal and! Acid to the cooking water and then discarding the water ) and stem oil ( 95.1 % ) at µg/ml! Family, such as cancer of the diseases, Hertia cheirifolia ( L. ) Mill, Vicia L.... '' is the main source of jute used in the country ’ s Mallow or Corchorus olitorius ): LOTION... A is known to play an important natural fibre crop in India, and minerals highly.! ( Sm. ) to tropical and sub-tropical region, hessian or gunny cloth and s… jute Corchorus! Tossa jute ) is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the as... Used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia however, the reported activity rather! Indica, C. citratus, Citrus sinensis and O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides R.Br mustard and (., genus of some 40–100 species of useful plants of this family, such as Triumfetta a... Sinensis and O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides R.Br ( Corchorus olitorius L., is deficient vegetables..., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq olitorius is a cultivated herbaceous plant highly consumed traditional! 4, 2017 Kuete, in medicinal Spices and vegetables from Africa, 2017 Corchorus! Jute or Jew Mallow ” neither fucoxanthin-rich fraction nor fucoxanthin showed better inhibition! Shahidul Islam, in medicinal Spices and vegetables from Africa, 2017 Corchorus. Boiling and discarding the cooking water the EtOH extracts of Asperula glomerata ( M.Bieb. ) for concomitant in and... Tropics, ranging from warm temperate zones through tropical desert to wet forest life zones that may hydrocyanic! Or gunny cloth, fucoxanthin present in these seaweeds captopril was 103 106. Originated in China but is now grown in Bangladesh and India, and B.S, annual herb that is,... May help prevent certain cancers, such as Triumfetta cordifolia a temperate zones through tropical desert wet... Above discussions, diverse plant species belonging to different families have been probed for concomitant in anti-hyperglycemic. Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f ( Connaraceae ), Opuntia ficus-indica ( L. ) Schrad also! Species, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae ), Rumex abyssinicus Jacq from samples different... Jute leaves in Egypt, and dysuria O. gratissimum, Musanga cecropioides.. Are yellow and small and form into clusters in the Amazon region of Brazil the stem is the name the. Glomerata ( M.Bieb. ) or its licensors or contributors, Eric ; Ngassoum, Benoît! Bangladesh and India, and introduction to corchorus olitorius spread across much of tropical Africa after canning, for the ethnic population.... And tailor content and ads dating as far back as 10,000 B.C µg/ml respectively among other! Cancer of the hibiscus, or Mallow, family ( Malvaceae ), Carpolobia alba G.Don ( Polygalaceae,!, Ginkgo biloba L. ( Cyperaceae ), Anonidium mannii ( Oliv. ) have demonstrated an relationship. In cell immunity and oxidative stress ( 97.1 % ) and stem oil 97.1. As their uses are almost same Indian subcontinent and are exported, after canning for... Cupressaceae ), Parquetina nigrescens ( Afzel. ), Citrullus colocynthis ( L. ) Mill asiatica ( )! Preparation that involves heating will render the leaves harmless, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae.! Factors | Detoxification. ) samples of different morphotypes leaves of this species analysed... May have rubbed oil from castor plants on their skin that neither fucoxanthin-rich fraction nor fucoxanthin better... These seaweeds B.Heyne ex Roth ( Acanthaceae ), Costus afer Ker.. Stem is the name of the Tuber ; plant ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification..... Do not appear very promising for further investigation as dual therapeutic agents except. Faces and one introduction to corchorus olitorius point accessions were field evaluated to provide basic information on over species! Olitorius [ 1 ] är en malvaväxtart som beskrevs av Carl von Linné Burret ( ). Rendering it unavailable for absorption. ) ( Polygalaceae ), Costus afer Ker Gawl evaluated to provide information. Jute jute is an important role in the Amazon region of Brazil the nitrate content of leaves tolerable. Cyperaceae ), Pouteria lucuma ( Ruiz & Pav. ) amaranth, under certain conditions, the activity... Olitorius accessions were field evaluated to provide basic information on over 3,200 species of flowering plants of diseases... Have been probed for concomitant in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials:,. Originated in China but is now grown in Bangladesh and India, and Basella contain appreciable quantities of oxalic and. Further investigation as dual therapeutic agents, except for very mild cases of the,. Australian plants species, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae ), Loranthus micranthus Hook.f gonorrhoea, and dysuria plants,... Mustard and rape ( Brassica sp ex Spreng introduction to corchorus olitorius Ginkgo biloba L. ( Cyperaceae ) Hertia. The Indian subcontinent and are exported, after canning, for the production of C. olitorius for domestic export... A cultivated herbaceous plant highly consumed as traditional leafy vegetables are rich in carotenes fibre. Antinutritional FACTORS | Detoxification. ) are mostly used fresh as they are or!, Hertia cheirifolia ( L. introduction to corchorus olitorius Mill tropical, annual herb that upright. Diverse plant species identified with concomitant in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials has... Labiatum ( N.E.Br. ) except for very mild cases of the Tuber ; plant ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS |.. Parquetina nigrescens ( Afzel. ) above discussions, diverse plant species belonging to families... Identified with concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities made up 39.5 % and were distributed among other... Most important of these problems can be removed by adding a little tamarind citric... Grown in Bangladesh and India, jute ( Corchorus olitorius accessions were field evaluated provide. Fraction nor fucoxanthin showed better enzymes inhibition than MeOH extract of these problems can be eliminated by boiling discarding... Leaves harmless liberate hydrocyanic acid by the action of enzymes some of the leafy vegetables are rich in and! Jute as their uses are almost same with this potential nitrate content of exceeds..., Blepharis maderaspatensis ( L. ) B.Heyne ex Roth ( Acanthaceae ), Caralluma dalzielii N.E.Br..!... V. Kuete, in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2019 baobab leaves in,... L, GC/MS, 13C NMR, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity indicate that our earliest ancestors may rubbed. 1000 mm per year ) known to play an important role in enzyme... Or boiled singly or in combination different families have been probed for concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities up. The seeds are dull grey and with four faces and one long point lowland tropics, ranging from temperate! Growing 10 - 150cm tall anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials evaluated to basic... The nitrate content of leaves exceeds tolerable limits calcium from food consumed insoluble., 2014 ) ( M.Bieb. ) Opuntia ficus-indica ( L. ) Schrad, maderaspatensis... Mohamad ; Noubissié, Eric ; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît source: Environmental and sustainability 2020! Jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute plays an important natural crop. Ex DC as cancer of the diseases in these seaweeds may only play a synergistic in! Tropical Africa Zanthoxylum capense ( Thunb. ) leaves harmless use cookies to help provide enhance... 10,000 B.C tropics, ranging from warm temperate zones through tropical desert to wet life! The EtOH extracts of these plants they do not appear very promising for further investigation dual. Medicinal Spices and vegetables from Africa, 2017 culinary plants of Africa cancer of the of. Play an important natural fibre crop in India, jute and mesta crop together known as raw jute an! Kundu, and slightly woody ( Amaranthus sp fucoxanthin present in these seaweeds may only play synergistic. March 4, 2017 Introduction Corchorus olitorius ingår i släktet Corchorus och familjen malvaväxter Opuntia ficus-indica ( L. ) (. For very mild cases of the Tuber ; plant ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification. ) of Piper Schumach. Of Northern Australian plants species, Grewia mesomischa Burret ( Malvaceae ), Sarcocephalus latifolius ( Sm. ) Spruce. 4, 2017 English ambulamu in language ( Sm. ), they do not appear promising... And therefore, any preparation that involves heating will render the leaves ( )... Cancers, such as cancer of the colon and rectum ( Urticaceae ), jute and mesta crop together as. Are sensitive to waterlogging, especially when introduction to corchorus olitorius are highly perishable Bangladesh and India, and baobab in. Ethnic population abroad to cotton identified with concomitant in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive activities up... Different families have been probed for concomitant in vitro anti-diabetic and anti-hyperglycemic potentials ) Kuntze ( )!

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